Crystalline allotrope of elemental carbon, the hardest known natural substance.



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Body-centred cubic lattice

The least tightly packed crystal structure.

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (basic)

Colourless, odourless, heavier-than-air gas. Necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Face-centred cubic metal lattice

The face-centred cubic metal lattice allows the closest fit of metal atoms.

Fullerene (C₆₀)

A crystalline allotrope of carbon which was discovered at the end of the 1980s.


One of the crystalline allotropes of elemental carbon.

Hexagonal metallic lattice

Metals forming hexagonal metallic lattices are rigid and difficult to machine.


A crystalline substance, an extremely important material in the electronics industry (semiconductors, integrated circuits).

Louis XIV (the Sun King)

The French monarch got his epithet because of his opulent and extravagant lifestyle.


Pearls, often used as gemstones, are the by-products of certain molluscs' protective mechanisms.

Silicon dioxide (SiO₂)

A polymorphic compound, mostly found in the form of quartz.

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