Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Common salt (or table salt) is one of the most important sodium compounds, indispensable for living organisms.

Chemistry

Keywords

sodium chloride, table salt, common salt, ionic compound, ionic crystal lattice, anion, cation, crystal lattice, salty water, inorganic chemistry, chemistry

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Scenes

Sodium chloride, table salt NaCl

Information

Molar mass: 58.44 g/mol

Melting point: 801 °C (1,474 °F)

Boiling point: 1,413 °C (2,575 °F)

Density: 2.165 g/cm³ (0.0782 lb/in³)

Hardness: 2 (on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness)

Properties

Sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt, is a white, odorless, crystalline material. It is an ionic compound; its ions form a face-centered cubic lattice. It dissolves well in water; the solution has a neutral pH.

Biologically important sodium and chloride ions are consumed as NaCl. It plays an important role in maintaining osmotic pressure in the body, but excessive consumption may cause high blood pressure. In medicine, a solution of 0.90% w/v of NaCl, called saline solution, is used in intravenous drips.

Occurrence and production

It is the third most common compound of sodium. It occurs in large quantities in seawater, brine wells and enclosed, dried-out coastal areas. It can be obtained through mining or evaporation.

Uses

Sodium chloride is used as table salt and as a preservative, as well as in the production of sodium compounds.

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Dissolution of NaCl

Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.

Chlorine (Cl₂)

A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odor, one of the halogens.

Face-centered cubic metal lattice

The face-centered cubic metal lattice allows the closest fit of metal atoms.

Seawater desalination

The desalination process produces drinking water from seawater.

Beryllium dichloride (BeCl₂)

Used in the production of beryllium and as a catalyst.

Silver bromide (AgBr)

A white, crystalline compound which breaks down when exposed to light.

Silver chloride (AgCl)

A white, crystalline compound that breaks down when affected by light.

Silver iodide (AgI)

A light yellow compound formed in the reaction of silver nitrate and potassium iodide.

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