This animation demonstrates different types of volcanic eruptions.
Hotspots are areas of the Earth´s crust where magma often rises to the surface and causes volcanic activity.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in the planet's surface through which geothermally heated water erupts.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge accompanied by a sound known as thunder.
Evaporating surface water forms clouds of various shapes from which water falls back to the surface as precipitation.
Water on Earth is in a continuous state of change. The water cycle includes processes such as evaporation, precipitation, melting and freezing.
Tectonic plates can move in relation to each other.
Vertical forces can break up layers of rock into fault blocks, which then move vertically along the fracture planes.
Physical properties, as well as the flora and fauna of the ocean change with depth.
Tsunami waves are very high waves of immense destructive power.
Rivers play an important role in shaping the Earth's surface: they cause erosion as well as carrying and depositing sediment.
Standing bodies of water can form in depressions on the surface by both endogenic and exogenic forces, as well as by human activity.
Short-lived but extremely powerful tornadoes can cause a great deal of damage.
Icebergs are blocks of frozen freshwater floating in the sea.
In mountainous areas the climate, soil properties, the flora and fauna change depending on elevation.
Wind, as an external force, plays an important role in shaping deserts.
Seawater, as an external force, plays an important role in shaping coastlines.
An earthquake is one of the most devastating natural phenomena.
Lateral compressive forces cause rocks to form folds. This is how fold mountains are formed.
This animation demonstrates the most important relief features, surface waters and their relevant symbols.