The archaeopteryx shows characteristics of both birds and reptiles. It is probably the ancestor of birds.


ATP is the main source of energy for cells.


NAD⁺ is a coenzyme that plays an important role mainly in catabolic processes, while NADP is important in anabolic processes as hydrogen carriers.

Traditional Eskimo lifestyle

Igloos were the typical dwellings built by Eskimos living in the Arctic zone.

Attack of Pearl Harbor (1941)

The United States entered World War II after the devastating attack by the Japanese navy.

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The Hypothalamic-pituitary axis is the regulating centre of our endocrine system.

Water supply system

The water supply system provides clean and safe drinking water for the consumers.

p-V-T diagram for ideal gases

The relationship between the pressure, volume and temperature of ideal gases is described by the gas laws.

Native American settlement (Crow Nation)

The Crow are Native Americans who inhabited the Yellowstone River valley.

The history of human migration

The migration of large human populations began in Ancient times.

Underground coal mining

As opposed to opencast mines, in underground mines the layers covering coal are not removed, coal is extracted from mine shafts.


A geyser is a spring characterised by intermittent discharge of water and steam.


The last Ice Age ended about 13 thousand years ago.


A fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.

El Niño

A periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean every five years.

Underground waters

Groundwater and aquifers are types of underground waters.

Warm front, cold front

Cold and warm fronts are formed where bodies of cold and warm air meet.

Mid-latitude cyclone and anticyclone

Cyclones are large areas of circulating air with clouds and precipitation being formed in its centre.


Oases are areas in deserts where water is available.

Types of soil (soil profiles)

This animation demonstrates different types of soil.

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