Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system reduces emission.

Phase transitions

A phase transition is the change of a substance from one state of matter to another.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes atmospheric circulation which is affected by a number of factors, including...

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for life on Earth.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Ferrous metallurgy (intermediate)

Raw iron is produced from iron ore in iron smelters.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

Hexagonal metallic lattice

Metals forming hexagonal metallic lattices are rigid and difficult to machine.

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

House without carbon-dioxide emission

The design and structure of modern houses play an important role in environmental protection.

Polymerisation of ethene

Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

Phosphorus pentoxide (P₂O₅)

A compound formed as white smoke during the combustion of phosphorus.

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