Anatomy of the spinal cord
The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system running inside the spinal column from which spinal nerves branch out.
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The reflex triggered by the stretching of the thigh extensor muscle is the patellar reflex.
The withdrawal reflex is a spinal reflex that ensures moving away from potentially damaging stimuli.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.
The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum, which is divided into lobes.
The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum.
Bones of the lower limbs are connected to the trunk by the pelvis.
Bones of the upper limbs form the pectoral girdle and the arms.
Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
Producing speech requires the synchronised operation of several cortical centres.
This animation introduces the most important organ systems of the human body.
The knee joint is made up by the femur, the tibia and the kneecap.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a lateral deviation.
The three types of muscle found in the human body are the smooth, the striated and the cardiac muscle.
Neurons are cells specialised for transmitting electric signals.
Neurons transmit electrical signals via chemical and electrical synapses.
The adrenal glands are responsible for maintaining homeostasis and producing a rapid response in stressful situations.
The ear converts the vibrations of air into electric signals which are then processed by the brain.
The heart is the central pump of the cardiovascular system beating several billion times over our lifetime.
The life cycle of vertebrates starts with the production of the reproductive cells of an individual and ends with the production of the reproductive cells...
The two main parts of the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord are protected by the skull and the spinal column.
This animation demonstrates the internal structure of the brain.
Human bones are joined together by cartilaginous or synovial joints, sutures or they can fuse together.
During the evolution of vertebrates the relative development of brain areas has changed.