Reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid
The dissolution of zinc in hydrochloric acid produces hydrogen gas.
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Zinc is a bluish-white heavy metal. It is soluble in acids and alkalis; the process generates hydrogen. Hydrochloric acid is a monobasic acid; during dissociation one hydrogen chloride molecule releases one hydrogen ion. In an aqueous solution, the hydrogen ion binds to a water molecule to form a hydronium ion. The reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid is an example of a redox reaction, that is, it involves an exchange of electrons.
The zinc atom reacts with the hydrogen ions, that is, the hydronium ions resulting from the dissociation of the hydrochloric acid. The zinc atom releases two electrons and oxidates into a zinc ion. The hydrogen ions bind the electrons released by the zinc atom and are reduced into hydrogen atoms.
These then bind to form hydrogen molecules; the resulting hydrogen gas leaves the solution as bubbles. In laboratories, this reaction is often used to produce hydrogen gas.
Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride
A colorless gas with a pungent odor, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.
The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.
During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.
Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.
Large-scale ammonia production requires high temperature and pressure and the presence of iron as a catalyst.