The simplest of the aromatic hydroxy compounds.
phenol, carbolic acid, hydroxy compound, aromatic hydroxy compound, hydroxyl group, aromatic ring, phenolates, toxic, phenoplast, coal tar, organic chemistry, chemistry
Phenol, carbolic acid C₆H₅OH
Molar mass: 94.11 g/mol
Melting point: 43 °C (109.4 °F)
Boiling point: 181.7 °C (359.06 °F)
Density: 1.0576 g/cm³ (0.0382 lb/in³)
Heat of combustion: -3,053.4 kJ/mol
Phenol is a colorless, toxic substance with a characteristic smell, forming needle-shaped crystals. When it is exposed to air for a longer period of time, its color changes to brownish red. Its non-polar ring makes it well soluble in non-polar solvents.
It is soluble in water too, due to the presence of a polar OH group, but its solubility in water is limited. Its concentrated aqueous solution is a weakly acidic, milk-like liquid: it is a stronger acid than ethanol but weaker than carbonic acid.
When it reacts with sodium-hydroxide, it forms sodium phenolate salt, which is water-soluble.
Phenol causes proteins to precipitate. When it comes in contact with skin, it causes burns.
Occurrence and production
Phenol occurs in coal tar and the trunk and needles of pine trees.
It is produced from benzene.
Phenol is used in large quantities as a base material in the manufacture of plastics (called phenoplasts). It is also used for dyes, medicines, pesticides and perfumes.
The simplest aromatic amine. Its scientific name is phenylamine.
Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.
In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.
The simplest of the aromatic carboxylic acids.
A colorless liquid with an odor similar to benzene. The monomer of polystyrene.
An exercise about the groups and structure of oxo compounds.