Oil refinery

Oil refinery

The products of oil refining include diesel oil, petrol and lubricants.

Geography

Keywords

oil refinery, hydrocarbon, carbon compounds, petroleum, oil deposit, crude oil formation, distillation, energy source, fuel, lubricating oil, heating oil, petrol, paraffin, diesel oil, asphalt, distillation tower, pipeline, fraction, distillate, refinery, energy, oil, raw material, fossil, mineral resource, mineral, oil rig, offshore platform, oil field, Tanker, industry, geography, technology

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Scenes

  • oil harbor

Oil refineries require a great deal of water and raw material; they are therefore generally located near hydrocarbon deposits, pipeline distribution centers and harbors.

Usually, crude oil is transported to oil refineries by pipelines. There, oil is first heated and vaporized in a tube furnace. Then the vaporized oil is conveyed to a distillation column. Oil is a mixture of several thousand types of saturated hydrocarbons. The aim of the oil refining process is to separate these into different fractions.

There are two types of oil refining: products from the first are motor fuel and heating fuels, while those from the other are lubricants.

Oil refining is based on the fact that the components of crude oil have different boiling points; crude oil can therefore be separated into its constituent parts by distillation.

In the distillation column, the oil vapor rises and meanwhile it cools down. As soon as any component of the oil reaches its boiling point, it condenses to liquid on the plates in the columns. These distillates, also called fractions, are gathered in fraction collectors.

Diesel oil condenses at the bottom of the distillation column, where it is the hottest. Substances with low boiling points, e.g. petrol, condense further up the column, while gaseous components, including methane and ethane, are removed at the top of the column.

The residue of fractional distillation is mazut, which is removed at the bottom of the column. After being reheated, mazut may be further distilled. This is how lubricant oils are produced. Today, however, only a small portion of these are used as lubricants. The rest are mainly used for producing high-octane, low-carbon motor fuel of good quality. This is done by cracking, which is a breaking down process.

Following the distillation process, the resulting residue is bitumen, which is used for road construction.

  • gas 100°C (212°F)
  • light petrol 105°C (221°F)
  • heavy petrol 120°C (248°F)
  • kerosene 160°C (320°F)
  • diesel oil 220°C (428°F)
  • mazut 275°C (527°F)
  • fine lubricant 300°C (572°F)
  • semi-fine lubricants 340°C (644°F)
  • heavy lubricants 370°C (698°F)
  • bitumen 400°C (752°F)

  • oil harbor
  • gas 100°C (212°F)
  • light petrol 105°C (221°F)
  • heavy petrol 120°C (248°F)
  • kerosene 160°C (320°F)
  • diesel oil 220°C (428°F)
  • mazut 275°C (527°F)
  • fine lubricant 300°C (572°F)
  • semi-fine lubricants 340°C (644°F)
  • heavy lubricants 370°C (698°F)
  • bitumen 400°C (752°F)

  • gas 100°C (212°F)
  • light petrol 105°C (221°F)
  • heavy petrol 120°C (248°F)
  • kerosene 160°C (320°F)
  • diesel oil 220°C (428°F)
  • mazut 275°C (527°F)
  • fine lubricant 300°C (572°F)
  • semi-fine lubricants 340°C (644°F)
  • heavy lubricants 370°C (698°F)
  • bitumen 400°C (752°F)

Narration

Oil refineries require a great deal of water and raw material; they are therefore generally located near hydrocarbon deposits, pipeline distribution centers and harbors.

Usually, crude oil is transported to oil refineries by pipelines. There, oil is first heated and vaporized in a tube furnace. Then the vaporized oil is conveyed to a distillation column. Oil is a mixture of several thousand types of saturated hydrocarbons. The aim of the oil refining process is to separate these into different fractions.

There are two types of oil refining: products from the first are motor fuel and heating fuels, while those from the other are lubricants.

Oil refining is based on the fact that the components of crude oil have different boiling points; crude oil can therefore be separated into its constituent parts by distillation.

In the distillation column, the oil vapor rises and meanwhile it cools down. As soon as any component of the oil reaches its boiling point, it condenses to liquid on the plates in the columns. These distillates, also called fractions, are gathered in fraction collectors.

Diesel oil condenses at the bottom of the distillation column, where it is the hottest. Substances with low boiling points, e.g. petrol, condense further up the column, while gaseous components, including methane and ethane, are removed at the top of the column.

The residue of fractional distillation is mazut, which is removed at the bottom of the column. After being reheated, mazut may be further distilled. This is how lubricant oils are produced. Today, however, only a small portion of these are used as lubricants. The rest are mainly used for producing high-octane, low-carbon motor fuel of good quality. This is done by cracking, which is a breaking down process.

Following the distillation process, the resulting residue is bitumen, which is used for road construction.

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