Human body (female)

Human body (female)

This animation introduces the most important systems of the human body.

Biology

Keywords

female body, body, organism, excretory system, skin, muscle, digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, nervous system, endocrine system, skeleton, feeding, respiration, digestive tract, removal, immune system, digestion, genitals, blood circulation, limb, abdominal muscle, skull, spine, chest, osteoporosis, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, mouth cavity, large intestine, larynx, trachea, lung, airway, heart, artery, vein, spleen, thymus, tonsil, lymph vessel, lymph node, kidney, ureter, urethra, bladder, vagina, womb, ovary, brain, spinal cord, nerve, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, reproductive gland, human, organ system, organ, biology, _javasolt

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Scenes

Skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin covering an average adult, has a surface area of about 1.5 square meters (16 square feet) and a mass of about 12 kg (26 lb), including the hypodermal fat layer. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in temperature regulation. The skin is our largest sensory organ; its receptors sense heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a liter (0.018 cu ft) of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 liters (51 oz) of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilization the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in females are the ovaries, which contain immature eggs (or ova). In each menstrual cycle, one of the eggs matures and is released from the ovary into the Fallopian tubes. Fertilization takes place here.

  • - They consist of nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system with various organs.

  • - They secrete female sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen plays a key role in ovulation and in the formation of female secondary sex characteristics. Progesterone is essential in fertilization, fetal development and maintaining pregnancy.
  • - It secretes T4 (tiroxine) hormone, which increases biological oxidation. It plays an important role in the normal development of the brain and in normal growth. An excessive production of thyroid hormones causes Graves´disease, while hypothyroidism causes goiter or cretinism (caused by congenital hypothyroidism).
  • - Together with the hypothalamus, it makes up the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the center of our hormonal system.

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal gland, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The center of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of further hormone. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Narration

Skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin covering an average adult, has a surface area of about 1.5 square meters (16 square feet) and a mass of about 12 kg (26 lb), including the hypodermal fat layer. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in temperature regulation. The skin is our largest sensory organ; its receptors sense heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Skeletal muscles are major organs of locomotion. There are about 350 skeletal muscles in the human body, making up 50% of body mass. There are long, short, flat and ring-shaped muscles. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

The skeleton of an adult human consists of 206 bones. Bones are rigid and flexible at the same time in order to carry a large amount of weight. Bone metabolism is slow, so bones heal slowly. A broken bone takes at least 6 weeks to heal. To prevent osteoporosis a proper daily intake of calcium (1,500 mg for adolescents) must be ensured.

The gastrointestinal system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth; digestion of carbohydrates can then begin. Proteins are digested in the highly acidic stomach.
Then in the small intestine all three types of nutrients, that is, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are absorbed. Pancreatic juice, which is secreted by the pancreas and contains digestive enzymes, is emptied there, as well as bile, which is secreted by the liver and aids in the digestion of lipids. The colon absorbs water and minerals; its bacterium flora produces vitamins.

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a liter (0.018 cu ft) of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

The network of blood vessels in our body form the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system that provides oxygen-rich blood to all the organs in the body and transports carbon dioxide away. Pulmonary circulation transports carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart into the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the heart. The blood is pumped through the blood vessels by the contractions of the heart. The health of our heart and blood vessels can be retained by doing regular exercise, sticking to a healthy, low-fat diet and avoiding smoking.

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 liters (51 oz) of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

The nervous system, together with the hormonal system, is responsible for the coordinated, regulated functioning of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit information between the central nervous system and the organs as electric signals. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge directly from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal gland, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The center of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of further hormone. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Lymph is the fluid found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces. It is produced from blood, by osmosis through the walls of capillaries. Metabolic products are also drained in the lymph.
Lymph is carried into the subclavian vein by lymph vessels, while passing through the lymph nodes. Pahthogens carried by the lymph meet white blood cells living in the lymph nodes, which is important for the operation of the immune system.
Other important lymphatic organs include the thymus, the spleen and the tonsils: they also play an important role in the maturation of white blood cells and in immune defense.

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilization the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in females are the ovaries, which contain immature eggs (or ova). In each menstrual cycle, one of the eggs matures and is released from the ovary into the Fallopian tubes. Fertilization takes place here.

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Anatomy of the large intestine

The large intestine is the last section of our digestive track.

Anatomy of the small intestine

The longest part of the digestive system, where most of the digestion and absorption takes place.

Blood vessels

The three main types of blood vessels in the human body are the arteries, the veins, and the capillaries.

Circulatory system

Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the lower limbs can cause a fatal pulmonary embolism if they enter the lungs.

Female reproductive system (basic)

The reproductive system is a series of organs working together for the purpose of reproduction.

Gametes

The zygote is the initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction.

Human muscles

Skeletal muscles form the active part of the locomotor system: they move the bones they are attached to.

Human skeleton

Our body´s internal support structure to which skeletal muscles are attached.

Layers of the skin; cutaneous senses

The skin is the soft outer covering of our body, its three layers are the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis.

Levels of biological organization below the individual

Levels of biological organization from the level of the individual organism to the level of cells.

Lymphatic system

Lymph vessels carry lymph to the blood vessels, while lymph nodes are integral parts of the immune system.

Male reproductive system

The reproductive system consists of organs which work together for the purpose of reproduction.

Medical conditions of the spine

Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a lateral deviation.

Nervous system

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.

The anatomy and functions of the liver

The liver is a vital organ that plays an important role in the digestion of fats, detoxification and metabolism.

The bones of the thorax

The ribs, the sternum and the spinal column form the skeleton of the chest.

The sense organs

Organs that detect signals of the environment or of the body and transmit them to the brain as nerve impulses.

The upper gastrointestinal tract

During swallowing food travels from the mouth cavity into the stomach.

The urinary system

The urinary system serves for the removal of harmful and useless materials from the body.

Venus figurines

These Paleolithic statuettes probably symbolize fertility and prosperity.

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