How does it work? - Loudspeaker

How does it work? - Loudspeaker

In loudspeakers sound waves are generated by electromagnetic induction.

Technology

Keywords

speaker, 3-way loudspeaker, electronic device, woofer, mid-range speaker, tweeter, audio crossover, coil, diaphragm, magnet, amplifier, vibration, sound, sound wave, high frequency sound, deep voice, mono, stereo, permanent magnet, attraction, repulsion, electromagnetic induction, portable audio player, technology, physics

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Scenes

Narration

In loudspeakers electric signals cause a diaphragm to move back and forth and thereby to produce sound.

The diaphragm vibrates due to electromagnetic induction. The diaphragm is connected to a coil. The electric current flowing through the coil induces a magnetic field, which interacts with the permanent magnet and this causes the diaphragm to move.

The direction of the movement depends on the direction of the current. When you wrap your right hand around the coil with your fingers in the direction of the current, your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic north pole. The identical poles of the two magnets repel each other, while the opposite poles attract each other. When the identical poles are close to each other, the coil and the diaphragm move forward. When the direction of the current changes and therefore the opposite poles are close to each other, the diaphragm moves backwards.

Smaller diaphragms produce sounds of higher frequencies, while larger diaphragms produce deep sounds. Therefore high quality loudspeakers are 3-way speakers, they consist of three drivers: a large woofer, a smaller mid-range driver and a small tweeter. The incoming electric signals are separated into different frequency ranges suited to each driver by an audio crossover.

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