From the Stone Age to the Iron Age

From the Stone Age to the Iron Age

This animation demonstrates the development of the ax throughout archeological periods.

History

Keywords

ax, hand ax, paleolithic, Neolithic period, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, copper, Ötzi, prehistory, Stone Age, device, tool, arrowhead, ax head, hoe, bracelet, scraper, spearhead, arrow quiver, arrow, pickax, pot, jewelry, sword, toolmaking, weapons, lifestyle, history

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Scenes

Evolution of the ax

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

Paleolithic

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

  • Paleolithic - Old Stone Age, an archeological time period starting about 2.4 million years ago and ending around 10000 B.C.
  • - An archeological time period between around 10000 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  • - Polished Stone Age, between about 7000 B.C. and 4500 B.C.
  • - Also known as the Copper Age or Eneolithic. It refers to the time period between about 4500 B.C. and 3300 B.C.
  • Bronze Age - An archeological time period between about 3300 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
  • Iron Age - An archeological time period starting around 1200 B.C.
  • hand ax
  • hand ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • ax head
  • - Rope made of plant fiber or animal sinew. It was used to fasten the ax head to the haft.
  • - They were made of wood. The ax head was either fastened to the side of the haft or to the top, by splitting it and inserting the head between the two parts.
  • ax head
  • stone ax
  • - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fiber.
  • polished stone ax head with an eye
  • polished stone ax head
  • - Polished stone axes were made in several forms. One of the basic types was made with a wooden handle split at the top, the head fastened between the parts with a rope made of plant fibers. For the other type a hole (an eye) was drilled in the head, then the haft inserted in it. The head was secured with a wedge.
  • - It is as old as agriculture itself. The polished, flat head was attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • ax head - The back of the copper ax head was folded back for a better grip on the haft.
  • copper flat ax - Its head was made of copper and attached to the wooden haft with plant fibers.
  • copper flat ax
  • - Spearheads and arrowheads were usually made of copper in this period. The shaft was inserted in the hollow end of the head, then fastened with plant fibers or leather straps looped through a ring at the rim of the head.
  • - Jewelry was also made of copper.
  • ax head
  • - It was hewn from the trunk of a yew tree. It was about 180 cm (6 ft) long and its range was about 30–50 m (100–165 ft).
  • - The Iceman, or the Man from Hauslabjoch lived about 5,300 years ago, in the early Copper Age. His mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch, on the border between Austria and Italy, at an altitude of 3,210 m (10,531 ft). He is the world’s oldest fully preserved mummy. When he died, he was probably about 45 years old and 158 cm (5' 2") tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lb).
  • ax - The 9.5 cm (3.74 in) long head was made of copper, and fixed to a 60 cm (23.62 in) long wooden haft.
  • pickax - It could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • pickax - The bronze pickax could be used for several purposes (e.g. mining, cutting down trees). The haft was wedged into a hole drilled in the ax head.
  • pickax head - Bronze pickax head with two blades opposite each other.
  • socketed ax - An advanced type of ax, which appeared in the late Bronze Age. The blade was usually wider than the poll. The ax head was hollow; it was used as a socket for the curved wooden haft.
  • socketed ax head - There was a small ring at the rim of the hollow ax head; the rope was looped through it to fasten the head to the haft. Axes could also be hung in bundles with the help of this ring.
  • jewelry - Typical, spiral-shaped, they were worn as jewelry or used to decorate clothes.
  • iron ax
  • iron ax
  • ax head

Narration

The history of mankind can be divided into archeological periods, based on the material of the tools typically used by people of the periods and the technique used for making them. In contrast to historical periods, archeological periods usually do not have clear boundaries and can even vary by region. The overview of the evolution of certain tools can also paint a true picture of the evolution of mankind.

The earliest archeological period is called the Stone Age, which covers the Paleolithic, the Mesolithic and the Neolithic.

In the Paleolithic, tools were typically made of stone by chipping. The most important tool in this period was the versatile hand ax.

Stone polishing appeared in the Mesolithic, but it was as late as the Neolithic that the most sophisticated polished stone tools were made.

One of the most developed tools made by neolithic artisans was the polished stone ax with an eye drilled in the head.

The Stone Age was followed by periods characterized by the use of different metals. At first, the prevailing material for tools was stone and copper, later they used an alloy of the latter, bronze, and then iron.

Ötzi, the Iceman, who lived in the Copper Age or Chalcolithic, already used copper tools.

The earliest type of copper alloys was tin bronze, in which tin was added to copper. The most widely used tool in the late Bronze Age was the socketed ax.

The archeological Iron Age followed the Bronze Age and generally ended around the beginning of the historical medieval period. However, its date and context vary depending on the culture and geographical region. In this period, tools made of iron dominated. The iron ax, typical of this period, is still among the most commonly used tools.

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