Faulting (intermediate)

Faulting (intermediate)

Vertical forces can break up layers of rock into fault blocks, which then move vertically along the fracture planes.

Geography

Keywords

faulting, plate tectonics, mountain formation, fault-block mountains, block, horst, ditch, fault terraces, basin, tectonic plate, fault line, rock, rising, descending, mountain, nature, geography

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Compressive, pulling and shearing forces can break up solid and rigid layers of rock along fault planes. The intersection of the fault plane and the surface is called fault line. The bodies of rock bounded by fault lines are called fault blocks.
Blocks can move vertically along the fracture planes when affected by upward or downward forces. Upward forces lift blocks, creating horsts, downward forces create depressions, called graben.
Downward forces can also form basins. Upward or downward forces can create fault terraces.
Fault regions
and fault mountains are the results of faulting.

Definitions of terms:

Faulting: vertical movement (raising or sinking) of masses of rock in the Earth’s crust along a fault plane.

Fault plane: the plane along which the faulting (fracture) occurs.

Fault: intersection of the fault plane and the surface.

Block: a body of rock bounded by two fault planes.

Horst: a raised fault block bounded by fault lines.

Graben: a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults, found between raised or unchanged blocks of the Earth’s crust.

Fault terraces: a series of raised or depressed blocks.

Fault basin: a round or irregular shaped region depressed in relation to the surrounding regions and separated from them by slopes. These basins are formed by tectonic movements or faulting.

Fault-block mountains: mountains created by faulting. A complex of raised and depressed blocks, basins and terraces.

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