Butane (C₄H₁₀)

Butane (C₄H₁₀)

The fourth member in the homologous series of alkanes.

Chemistry

Keywords

butane, saturated hydrocarbon, alkane, paraffin, homologous series, constitutional isomerism, single bond, covalent bond, sigma bond, open chain, isomer, natural gas, LPG, organic chemistry, chemistry

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Butane C₄H₁₀

Information

Molar mass: 58.123 g/mol

Melting point: -138.4 °C (-217.12 °F)

Boiling point: -0.5 °C (-31.1 °F)

Density: 0.00248 g/cm³ (0.00009 lb/in³)

Relative steam density: (air=1): 2.1

Heat of combustion: -2,877.6 kJ/mol

Properties

Butane is a colorless, odorless, heavier-than-air flammable gas. It does not dissolve in water, but dissolves well in organic solvents. It causes unconsciousness if inhaled. Its typical reactions are halogenation, sulfonation and nitration.

Occurrence and production

Butane occurs in crack gases generated during oil refining and in natural gas.

Uses

A liquefied mixture of propane, butane and isobutane is distributed in steel or aluminium cylinders (This is LPG).

The largest quantities are used as a base material in the production of butadiene and polymer petrols. It is also used as a household heating fuel.

Related items

1-butene (C₄H₈)

One of the isomers of butene.

Alkanes

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which can be organized into a homologous series.

Trans-2-butene (C₄H₈)

A colorless, heavier-than-air gas. Its geometric isomer is cis-2-butene.

1-butanol (C₄H₁₀O)

A 4-carbon alcohol commonly used as a solvent.

2-methylbutane (C₅H₁₂)

One of the isomers of pentane, used as a solvent.

Cis-2-butene (C₄H₈)

A colorless, heavier-than-air gas. Its geometric isomer is trans-2-butene.

Cyclohexane (C₆H₁₂)

A colorless liquid, easily solved by organic solvents but not by water.

Cyclopentane (C₅H₁₀)

Member of the cycloalkane homologous series.

Ethane (C₂H₆)

The second member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.

Hexane (C₆H₁₄)

The sixth member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.

Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) (C₅H₈)

Synthetic rubber is produced by the polymerisation of isoprene.

Pentane (C₅H₁₂)

The fifth member in the alkane homologous series. A colorless, combustible liquid.

Prop-1-ene (C₃H₆)

The monomer of polypropylene.

Propane (C₃H₈)

The third member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.

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