Bromine (Br₂)

Bromine (Br₂)

One of the halogens, it may cause skin irritation.



bromine, homonuclear molecule, halogen, nonpolar, covalent bond, single bond, sigma bond, toxic, bromine water, unsaturation, bromide ion, chemistry

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Bromine Br₂


Molar mass: 159.82 g/mol

Melting point: -7.25 °C (18.95 °F)

Boiling point: 59.5 °C (139.1 °F)

Density (at 0°C or 32 °F): 3.187 g/cm³ (0.115 lb/in³)


Bromine is a pungent, reddish brown, volatile liquid, one of the halogens. It is weakly soluble in water; its aqueous solution is called bromine water. It is toxic, causing ulcers on the skin.

Occurrence and production

Bromine occurs in small quantities in the Earth´s crust. Bromides usually occur together with chlorides; they can be found in seawater. In industrial quantities, bromide is produced by oxidizing bromide ions with chlorine.


Certain bromine-containing organic compounds are used in the manufacture of pesticides, flame retardants, dyes and medicines. Bromine water is used to test the unsaturation of compounds.

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Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.

Hydrogen bromide (HBr)

One of the hydrogen halides, it is used for the production of alkyl bromides.

Chlorine (Cl₂)

A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odor, one of the halogens.

Comparison of halogens

Halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

Fluorine (F₂)

The lightest halogen, a pale yellow-green, toxic gas, extremely reactive. Its best known compound is teflon.

Iodine (I₂)

A solid, gray substance which sublimates when heated. Its solution in alcohol is called tincture of iodine, it is a disinfectant.

Iodine crystal

A solid, gray substance which sublimates when heated. Its solution in alcohol is called ´tincture of iodine´, it is a disinfectant.

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