One of the stereoisomers of D-glucose.
beta-D-glucose, sugar, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, simple sugar, stereoisomer, hexose, aldose, aldohexose, silver mirror test, axial, equatorial, organic chemistry, chemistry
Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol
Melting point: 148 °C (298.4 °F)
Density: 1.55 g/cm³ (0.056 lb/in³)
Beta-D-glucose is an aldohexose. It is a white, odorless, sweet, crystalline compound, which dissolves well in water but poorly in alcohol. When heated, it melts at a low temperature. Its ring structure contains an ether group and a hydroxyl group.
’Beta’ means that the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon atom is located above the plane of the ring, on the same side as the CH₂OH group. In alpha-D-glucose the hydroxyl group and the CH₂OH group are located in opposite hemispheres.
’D’ means that the configuration of the chirality center that is farther from the oxo group is identical to the configuration of D-glyceraldehyde.
Beta-D-glucose forms esters with carboxylic acids. It produces positive results on Fehling’s and Tollens’ tests, since some of the rings open up in an aqueous solution, and the resulting open chain molecules take part in the reaction.
Occurrence and production
Glucose is found in almost all sweet fruits, it is a component of di-, and polysaccharides such as maltose and starch. It is the monomer of cellulose.
It is produced in plants during photosynthesis.
The human body uses the energy produced during the slow metabolic breakdown (or biological oxidation) of glucose.
It is used in large quantities in a number of chemical syntheses, such as in the production of sorbitol, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, and glutamic acid.
Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.
The building material of the cell walls and fibers of plants.
Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.
Fructose is the sweetest of the simple carbohydrates.
The primary source of energy for living cells.
Paper was invented more than two thousand years ago.
The animation demonstrates the process of ring closure of open-chain glucose into alpha- and beta-D-glucose.
A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.
A helical molecule consisting of alpha-D-glucose units. It is one of the basic components of starch.
The sweetest type of sugar.
A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.
A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.
Mirror image isomers of asymmetrical shapes and solids are non-superimposable.
An exercise about the groups and structure of mono-, di- and polysaccharides.