Beta-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Beta-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

One of the stereoisomers of D-glucose.

Chemistry

Keywords

beta-D-glucose, sugar, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, simple sugar, stereoisomer, hexose, aldose, aldohexose, silver mirror test, axial, equatorial, organic chemistry, chemistry

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Scenes

Beta-D-glucose C₆H₁₂O₆

Information

Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol

Melting point: 148 °C (298.4 °F)

Density: 1.55 g/cm³ (0.056 lb/in³)

Properties

Beta-D-glucose is an aldohexose. It is a white, odorless, sweet, crystalline compound, which dissolves well in water but poorly in alcohol. When heated, it melts at a low temperature. Its ring structure contains an ether group and a hydroxyl group.

Beta’ means that the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon atom is located above the plane of the ring, on the same side as the CH₂OH group. In alpha-D-glucose the hydroxyl group and the CH₂OH group are located in opposite hemispheres.

D’ means that the configuration of the chirality center that is farther from the oxo group is identical to the configuration of D-glyceraldehyde.

Beta-D-glucose forms esters with carboxylic acids. It produces positive results on Fehling’s and Tollens’ tests, since some of the rings open up in an aqueous solution, and the resulting open chain molecules take part in the reaction.

Occurrence and production

Glucose is found in almost all sweet fruits, it is a component of di-, and polysaccharides such as maltose and starch. It is the monomer of cellulose.

It is produced in plants during photosynthesis.

Uses

The human body uses the energy produced during the slow metabolic breakdown (or biological oxidation) of glucose.

It is used in large quantities in a number of chemical syntheses, such as in the production of sorbitol, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, and glutamic acid.

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Cellobiose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.

Cellulose (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

The building material of the cell walls and fibers of plants.

Alpha-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.

Beta-D-fructose (fruit sugar) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Fructose is the sweetest of the simple carbohydrates.

D-glucose (dextrose) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

The primary source of energy for living cells.

Papermaking

Paper was invented more than two thousand years ago.

Ring closure of glucose

The animation demonstrates the process of ring closure of open-chain glucose into alpha- and beta-D-glucose.

Saccharose (sucrose) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.

Amylose ((C₆H₁₀O₅)n)

A helical molecule consisting of alpha-D-glucose units. It is one of the basic components of starch.

Lactose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.

Maltose (malt sugar) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.

Optical isomerism

Mirror image isomers of asymmetrical shapes and solids are non-superimposable.

Molecule exercise VI (Carbohydrates)

An exercise about the groups and structure of mono-, di- and polysaccharides.

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