Anatomy of the large intestine

Anatomy of the large intestine

The large intestine is the last section of our digestive track.

Biology

Keywords

colon, large intestine, intestines, digestive tract, digestive system, feeding, digestion, absorption, appendix, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, intestinal flora, intestinal mucosa, smooth muscle, rectum, anus, stool, peristalsis, human, anatomy, biology

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Scenes

  • - The esophagus and the trachea start in this part of the human body.
  • esophagus - It propels food towards the stomach with peristaltic waves. This peristaltic motion is provided by the synchronized motion of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers.
  • - It is the last part of the hindgut and the digestive system. It absorbs water and plays an important role in forming the stool.
  • - Feces is expelled from the body through it. This process is controllable by two ring-like muscles, the anal sphincters. The internal anal sphincter consists of smooth muscle, while the external anal sphincter is a voluntary striated muscle.

  • - Feces is expelled from the body through it. This process is controllable by two ring-like muscles, the anal sphincters. The internal anal sphincter consists of smooth muscle, while the external anal sphincter is a voluntary striated muscle.
  • - It is the last part of the hindgut and the digestive system. It absorbs water and plays an important role in forming the stool.

  • - Feces is expelled from the body through it. This process is controllable by two ring-like muscles, the anal sphincters. The internal anal sphincter consists of smooth muscle, while the external anal sphincter is a voluntary striated muscle.
  • - It is the last part of the hindgut and the digestive system. It absorbs water and plays an important role in forming the stool.

Narration

The human digestive system can be divided into an upper and a lower tract.

The large intestine is part of the lower digestive tract. It contains the cecum, the colon, the rectum and the anus.

The appendix is an extension of the cecum. When it is inflamed it requires immediate surgical removal.
No digestion takes place in the colon; the absorption of water and minerals happens here. Certain bacteria living in the colon produce vitamins B and K.
Antibiotics can damage the gut flora, therefore it is recommended that we take probiotics during or after antibiotic treatments. The content of the intestine proceed from the colon to the rectum. Water is absorbed in the rectum, which plays an important role in forming the stool.

The outer layer of the colon is the serous membrane. Under this layer, there are layers of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle. The synchronized motion of these two muscle layers ensures the peristaltic motion of the digestive system; it mixes and propels the content of intestines. The innermost layer of the colon is the intestinal mucosa. On the surface of the intestinal mucosa, goblet cells are embedded in intestinal epithelial cells.

Goblet cells are unicellular glands that secrete mucus. They produce mucins, whose function is to lubricate and protect the mucous membrane. Water, minerals and vitamins are absorbed into the blood vessels of the mucous membrane through the intestinal epithelial cells.

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